The Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis: What have we learned in the last two decades of research?


  • Vera M. F. da Silva Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia- Inpa
  • Sannie M. Brum Associação Amigos do Peixe-boi- AMPA, Manaus, Am, Brasil PPG BADPI, INPA, Manaus, AM, Brasil
  • Daniela M.D. de Mello Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil PPG BADPI, INPA, Manaus, AM, Brasil
  • Rodrigo de Souza Amaral  Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas. Manaus, AM, Brasil. Associação Amigos do Peixe-boi- AMPA, Manaus, Am, Brasil.
  • Waleska Gravena Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Coari, AM, Brasil. AM, Brasil
  • Elizabeth Campbell Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK Carrera de Biología Marina, Universidad Científica del Sur, 15067 Lima, Perú ProDelphinus, Miraflores, 15074 Lima, Peru
  • Rayane da S. Gonçalves Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, Manaus, Brasil and PPG-BADPI, , INPA, Manaus, AM, Brasil
  • Vanessa Mintzer Wildlife Research Partnerships, Asheville, NC 28813, USA Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program, School of Forest, Fisheries, & Geomatics Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA



In the last decades, knowledge about the biology of the Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis has increased considerably. Accordingly, we present a review of the published literature on this river dolphin, with a focus on topics with the most advancements and those that are important to the species conservation. We also present new information, including emerging knowledge on the other species of Inia. We summarize the current knowledge of the biology of Inia, covering aspects of taxonomy, distribution, life history and reproduction, genetics, anatomy and physiology, health, behavior, ecology, demographic parameters, and population trends. We also highlight the main anthropogenic threats affecting the species and the resulting conservation efforts.